In the paper, we show that there are two types of gravitational force. The axial Newton force of gravity, focussed on the primary mass, and also the circumferential Prandtl adjunct force of gravity, which derives from the assembly of masses other than the primary mass.

The Newton force occurs in a stress-free planetary environment, and the Prandtl force, which is proportional to the square of van Karman’s constant () is a result of the inter-planetary stresses which occur due to the formation of the planets. In the planetary system the Prandtl force is much smaller in magnitude than the Newton force, but in the universe it is much greater than the Newton force due to any primary mass.

The Newton force gives us, not only the law of gravity, but also the basic structure of the planetary system, for which, we show that the product of the annular density, , and the radius , is a constant, as is demonstrated by the orbital properties of the planets.

On the other hand, the Prandtl force is much greater than the Newton force in the Einstein model for the universe due to its infinitely greater mass in comparison with any Newton primary mass. This axiom applied in Newton’s theory of gravity leads directly to Einstein’s famous law, , where is energy, is mass, and is the speed of light, which is a constant, and also to a companion law for torque, , where in which is the standard deviation of the circumferential Prandtl force.

In the numerical evaluations, we use the consensus experimental value () throughout.

The Antikythera Mechanism is a machine made up of bronze gears capable of predicting celestial positions, moon phases, eclipses and calculating calendars. Its construction is estimated to be 205 BCE. Studies on the functioning of the mechanism revealed great technical sophistication. From the principle of operation of the Antikythera Mechanism, a simplified didactic replica of the device was developed to be used as an educational instrument.

This paper presents a new analytical method to determine amplitude of density fluctuations of 152 nearby clusters (z ≤ 0.15). We investigate the rms linear fluctuation in the mass distribution on scales of 8h−1M pc i.e. σ8 , by using Press-Shechter mass function. The mass function is estimated for masses larger than Mlim = 4 ×1014h−1M⊙. We find rms density fluctuation equal to 0.52 for the critical density universe. The results found are consistent with those, obtained with alternative models for the high density universe. The results agree with the previous papers obtained from different models and considerations. This takes us to introduce a new approach to estimate the cosmological parameters. For critical density , the slight variation in results may be due to the fact that there are observational uncertainties in estimates of cluster masses, which are in general not neglegible.

We emphasize the point that, standard model of cosmology is basically a model of classical general relativity and it seems inevitable to have a revision with reference to quantum model of cosmology. Utmost important point to be noted is that, ‘Spin’ is a basic property of quantum mechanics and ‘rotation’ is a very common experience. In this context, we propose five assumptions in line with Planck mass as the baby universe. We appeal that, 1) Universe can be modelled as a time-reversed black hole (a white hole) with rotation and light speed expansion, and 2) ‘Light speed expanding cosmic space’ can be called as ‘Flat space’. With reference to light speed expansion, if one is willing to re-define cosmic red shift as [z/(1+z)], without considering Lambda cosmology model of matter density fractions, light travel distances can be reproduced with marginal error. Advantages of our assumptions are, 1) A quantum model of cosmology can be developed with unification of general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. 2) Tension in estimating the current Hubble parameter can be eliminated via scaled Hawking’s black hole temperature formula with great confidence. 3) Galactic dark matter and visible matter can be studied in a unified manner. 4) Galactic light travel distances can be estimated very easily without matter density fractions. 5) Big bang and inflation like non-general relativistic concepts can be relinquished with further study.

In this article, a generalized varying gravitational scalar potential was used to completely define the metric tensors and coefficients of affine connections for spherical massive bodies whose tensor field varies with time, radial distance and polar angle. The completely defined metric tensors and coefficients of affine connections were used to study Einstein’s equations of motion for test particles within this field. The results obtained to the limit of reduced to the corresponding Schwarzchild equations and to the limit of , it contained additional terms not found in Schwarzchild equations which can be used in the study of blackhole and gravitational wave in this field and other astrophysical phenomena.